Why does the responsibility of the abundant amount of waste falls onto the individual consumer, not the manufacturer?
Before World War ll: Milk carton example, reuse that milk container all the time. REFILL!
After World War Two: Rise in consumption of product, massive capacity of manufacturing. Manufacturer: How do I maximize my profit?
1956, Plastics Industries Conference: “Your future is in the garbage wagon…”
Give them things in a single-use container. Example: single-use plastic cups=LESS WASHING!
TEACH PEOPLE TO THROW THINGS AWAY: Invention of the idea of garbage
Early 1950’s: Americans saw EVERYTHING as garbage and single-use plastics. Manufacturers used the single-use as a way for people to buy more products!
Littering on the side of highways, cows would eat glass shards and die.
1953, Vermont State Legislator: passed a ban on disposable glass bottles. Dairy farmers were upset about cows dying and this really pushed the ban to pass.
1953: Glass industry saw this ban as a threat and created Keep America Beautiful! Anti-litter campaign made by bottling companies and shape public opinion about litter. This was to make sure that companies were not seen as responsible for waste.
EVERY AMERICAN TO BELIEVE THAT IT IS THEIR RESPONSIBILITY TO KEEP AMERICA CLEAN, TAKE AWAY THE BLAME OF THE MANUFACTURER.
Environmental organizations like the Sierra Club joined this movement.
Marketing about consumer littering. Individual thoughtlessness and carelessness
1960’s: BIGGEST market tool was the PSA (public service announcements) used the idea that the “who we should be white americans”
1964: Shifted from the who we should be (citizen values) to the more private family affair: SUSAN SPOTLESS.
Chastise irresponsible adults for littering: make people feel bad.
1960’s: Keep America Beautiful claimed 70 million members.
No other laws like Vermont’s (ban on single-use glass bottles) were passed again and Vermont’s own law was allowed to pass.
1970, First Earth Day: A lot of activists held events and put a lot of blame on corporations: This is not only why we have litter and other environmental issues.
Keep America Beautiful hires big New York marketing company and change the aesthetic and message of the campaign to reach the people.
Keep America Beautiful is still a campaign used today!